Exploring ESC Circuits (Electronic Speed Controller Circuit)


In this article, we explore ESC circuits (electronic speed controller circuits).

We will first examine what the purpose of an ESC is and how it works. Then, we will look at the factors on how ESC protects the device’s motor. Finally, we will look at the things to consider when choosing ESC circuits.

Introduction ESC Circuits (1)

Introduction ESC Circuits

What is an Electronic Speed Controller Circuit?

An electronic speed controller circuit is used to control the speed of a machine or device. It operates by monitoring the voltage of an electric motor and adjusting its own output voltage to compensate for changes in load.

How do ESC Circuits Operate?

An ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) is a circuit that regulates the speed of a motor. In RC vehicles, it’s used to control acceleration, deceleration, and braking. ESCs can also be used with other mechanical devices like pumps, fans, and blowers.

The ESC does this by receiving signals from the transmitter through its receiver input connector. The receiver sends these signals to a microprocessor inside the ESC. The microprocessor interprets these signals and responds by sending them through an H-bridge circuit that causes the motor to either turn on or turn off as needed.

What is ESC Circuit’s Power Supply?

ESC is a high-voltage power supply for electronics. It’s important to know that ESC is not a part of the circuit itself but an accessory that can be used with any circuit. ESC is a high-voltage power supply that offers both bipolar and unipolar versions. The bipolar version can output 15kVDC (+/- 7.5kVDC) while the unipolar version outputs 10kVDC (+/- 5kVDC).

Two Types of ESC Circuits

There are two basic types of ESC circuits: brushed and brushless.


The brushed type of ESC circuit is the most popular of the two because it is relatively cheap, simple, and easy to understand. The brushed type of ESC circuit uses a brushed DC motor. A brushed DC motor has two wires that spin around in a circle when current is applied to them. The brushes rub against this armature, creating friction and causing an electromotive force to be generated in the direction opposite that of the current flow through the coil. This EMF generates a magnetic field that pushes against any magnetic material nearby and causes the motor to spin.

Brushed ESC Circuits



Brushless ESCs can be used to control the speed of a motor by applying voltage to its windings. The voltage is usually supplied by a battery, but it can also come from an AC line or a DC power supply.

When a signal is applied to one side of each winding, current flows through that winding and its associated coil to ground. When current flows through both coils in opposite directions, the magnetic field produced by the coils cancels out, making it possible for the motor to turn freely.

Brushless ESC Circuits


What Components are in an ESC Circuit?

An ESC circuit has three major components:


This regulates how much power goes out of the battery pack to run your motor and other electronics in your system. If there isn’t enough power going into the PSU, then it can’t supply enough power to run all of these components at once—so this regulator makes sure that you don’t over-power them by providing only as much power as they need at any given moment in time.

Voltage Regulator

This controls how much voltage goes from the switching regulator into your motors via PWM signals sent back-and-forth between each other via wires connected between them (and other wires connected between them) in order for them both to work together properly when needed.


The processor is the “brains” of the ESC circuit. It is responsible for making decisions about when to turn on the motor and how much power to send to it.

ESC Circuit

ESC Circuit Diagram

What Factors Do ESC Circuits Protect Your Motor?

The ESC circuit is designed to protect your motor from a variety of factors. These include:


This is when the temperature of the motor gets too high. The ESC circuit is designed to protect your motor from getting too hot. If the temperature gets too hot, it can cause damage to the motor and reduce its life.


If you have a lot of current flowing through your battery and motor, the heat generated by that current can cause both the battery and motor to overheat. If you don’t have an ESC circuit installed, this heat will build up until your battery is drained and the motor burns out.


This is when the voltage in an ESC circuit exceeds the maximum voltage allowed by the motor’s manufacturer. If this happens, the motor can be damaged or destroyed.

Over-voltage protection is a safety feature that catches this problem before it happens and shuts down the circuit to protect your equipment.


This is a sudden discrepancy in the rotation of an electric motor. It occurs when the motor’s rotational speed and direction change unexpectedly.

ESC circuits protect your motor by preventing it from desynchronizing. This can cause damage to the motor and lead to serious safety concerns.

ESC Circuits Features

ESC Circuits Features

Things to Consider when Choosing ESC Circuits

When choosing ESC circuits, you should consider the following:

Current Rating

When choosing an ESC circuit, make sure that you consider the current rating. The current rating tells you how much power the circuit can handle. It is measured in amps. The higher the amp rating, the more powerful your ESC will be. For example, if you are using a motor with a high torque value, then you should choose an ESC with a high current rating.

Input Voltage Rating

When choosing an ESC circuit, you will want to consider the input voltage rating. The input voltage rating is the maximum amount of voltage that can be applied to the circuit without damaging it. This is important because some devices may have different power requirements. You need to ensure that your ESC can handle them all.


The firmware is the software that controls the ESC. It’s what allows you to configure your ESCs and make changes to them. This feature is essential because you’ll need it when you’re trying to figure out how to set up your ESCs for a specific application.

It tells the electronics what to do in reaction to your input. The firmware will control how quickly and smoothly your motor starts, stops, and accelerates. It also controls whether or not there are any glitches in your driving experience, like when you hit the throttle too hard and your wheels start spinning uncontrollably.

ESC Connection to Motor

When choosing an ESC, you’ll have to consider the connection between the ESC and your motor. You can choose between a single-wire connection or a double-wire connection.

A single-wire connection is often used when you’re using a brushed motor, but it’s also possible to use with brushless motors. A single-wired connection allows for better efficiency and control than a double-wired connection does. This is because there are fewer wires in the way of the signal going from the controller to your motor.

However, if you’re using a brushed motor and want the highest efficiency possible, then you should consider getting an ESC with a double-wired connection instead. This type of circuit allows for more precise control over your battery power usage because it uses two wires instead of just one.


The protocol is the language of communication for the ESC. It’s what tells it how to interpret the data it receives from its sensors and how to react to that data.

For example, if you want your ESC circuit to be able to read information from a temperature sensor, it needs to understand how a temperature sensor works. This means that every ESC circuit will have a different protocol. Therefore, every ESC circuit will be able to read different types of sensors.

This can be a good thing or a bad thing depending on what you’re looking for in an ESC circuit. For example, if you want your ESC circuit to be able to read information from any type of sensor and react accordingly, then having more protocols available might be helpful because it gives users more options when choosing an ESC circuit. If you’re looking for an ESC that can only read certain kinds of sensors, then having fewer protocols available might be better because it limits your choices. It easier for you to find exactly what you need without having too many options get in the way.


When choosing ESC circuits, you’ll want to consider the processor. The processor is the “brain” of the electronic circuit. The processor is what controls how your device will respond to stimuli and how it will act in response.

You will want to make sure you have an adequate processor. The processor should be able to handle the amount of data required by your application. For example, if you are working with high-definition video signals, then you will need a processor that can handle the large amounts of data that are involved in that type of signal processing.

Where Do you Use ESC Circuits?

ESC circuits are used in many different applications, but there are a few that are especially common.

Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles use ESC circuits to ensure the safety of their passengers. The ESC circuit is made up of sensors that monitor the vehicle’s wheel speeds and send this information to a computer, which then compares it to the vehicle’s speed. The circuit then sends signals back to the wheels in order to keep them in control and prevent them from spinning out of control.

ESC helps make the car stop when it needs to, and keeps it from accelerating too quickly. It’s especially helpful in electric vehicles because they don’t have as much torque as traditional engines, so they don’t have the same ability to quickly accelerate or decelerate.

ESC is also used in industrial applications where there are lots of heavy loads. For instance, you might see it used on forklifts or other large machinery that needs to stop and start frequently.

Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicles


ESCs are used to control the speed of a drone’s propellers. This is important because it controls how fast or slow the drone can fly. This also controls how much power the propellers need to move.

In addition to powering the drone, ESCs also allow you to adjust how much power goes to each propeller individually. Make sure that all of your propellers are working at full capacity.



Remote-Controlled Toys

ESC circuits are used in many remote-controlled toys, including cars, boats, and airplanes. These circuits are responsible for managing the speed of motors and ensuring that they don’t overheat or burn out. Most ESC circuits also have reverse functionality, so if your car goes off-course during a race or while you’re playing with it in your living room, you can just hit reverse to get it going again.

Remote-Controlled Toys

Remote-Controlled Toys


Fully understanding how ESCs work and what different combinations of components can do is probably beyond the scope of most individuals, but if you’re curious about their inner workings and have specific questions, we hope that we’ve provided some answers here. And if you’re interested in how ESCs work, this article can help point you in the right direction to go further.

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