PCBTok is Your Go-To Medical PCB Supplier and Producer
Due to PCBTok’s extraordinary, reliable services, and premium products served to customers, we are acknowledged worldwide. In the span of 12 years in the industry, we’ve carried out our mission to provide customers only the finest PCBs.
- We offer hundred percent inspections (AOI and E-Test)
- Offer thorough customized PCB assistance.
- Accessible raw materials.
- All-day and night customer support provided.
- Provide a sample specimen before releasing huge quantity of purchases.
Medical PCB by PCBTok is Momentous in the PCB Industry
PCBTok has always been utilizing high-grade materials for its Medical PCB since we only seek to supply elite products that will please our consumers. However, even if we’re employing superb components, we are still putting the product at an affordable rate at its highest quality possible.
We assure you that you only receive the finest product possible, and the outstanding service you deserve.
Give us a call today and grab your PCB immediately!
The knack of PCBTok to offer unprecedented products and services has gained us a lot of approbation for the entire 12 years. Inquire to us today, and experience the flair Medical PCB!
Medical PCB By Feature
Medical PCB By Products (5)
Medical PCB By Colors (5)
Benefits of Medical PCB
Talking about Medical PCBs, we’re all aware that these sorts of PCBs are commonly employed in medical machinery and devices; making Medical PCBs essential in the field of medicine.
- Some of them are used in medical wearables; these may track an individual’s exact medical status, allowing professionals to better treat them.
- They are crucial for Better Record Management because they facilitate clinical records.
- With its wireless technology, Medical PCBs are beneficial for distributing testing results or other medical findings across your household.
Mentioned benefits are just some of them, there are a lot more benefits when employing PCB!
PCBTok Medical PCB Properties
When it comes to Medical PCB, its properties vary depending on certain applications. In this section, you’ll know the basic properties that we offer for your PCB.
- The core component for the PCBs can be ceramic, FR4, or polyimide.
- It features a range of surface finishes, including HASL, Lead-Free HASL, ENIG, and several surface polishes.
- RF-775, Dupont Material, and SF305 are all flexible alternatives.
- Organic Polymer is the Medical PCB’s associated shielding element.
The aforementioned properties are just some of them, inquire today and send us your PCB requirements.
PCBTok: Medical PCB Assembly
Medical PCBs are extremely significant in the field of medicine because most medical equipment can diagnose a person’s specific health issues; as a result, Medical boards should be created with extreme caution, accuracy, and security.
Several assembling aspects, like uniformity, must be considered in medical PCBs in order for the device to be dependable throughout. Secondly, it should be simple to use, so that experts can use it more efficiently. Finally, it must be constructed to last.
Following the established guidelines in the construction of the Medical circuit board will provide the aforementioned aspects.
Ask us today for queries!
Selecting Medical PCB by PCBTok is the Wisest Option
PCBTok has sufficient personnel to meet your Medical PCB requirements. Furthermore, you may put your Medical PCB in our hands with confidence because we have adhered to all industry regulations and have obtained all necessary certifications.
PCBTok strives to provide the finest available solutions for its consumers; we don’t want to deliver low-cost, low-quality items; instead, we want to deliver the best possible Medical PCB.
If you have any queries about our production process or our Medical PCB, our consultants are open to assisting you.
PCBTok will provide you with your own Medical PCB instantly!
Medical PCB Fabrication
Seeking for tried and tested Medical PCB? Then, PCBTok’s Medical PCB is perfect for you!
PCBTok always ensures that all of our Medical PCBs went through various evaluations to attain their highest possible quality.
We do not want to provide you with a product that’s not been tested and didn’t pass any inspections since this will affect your usage.
Since we’re China’s best-rated Medical PCB maker and supplier, our Medical PCB is made with perfection and reliability.
Place your Medical PCB order with us today!
PCBTok’s Medical PCB is able to meet your limited budget with extremely high-class products.
Look no further if you’re on a tight budget for your Medical PCB since PCBTok can offer you world-class quality at a very affordable rate.
Reliability-wise, the Medical board by PCBTok is made with materials that are superb. We all made it possible to fit in a low-cost product.
All of PCBTok’s PCB is made with genuine care, and accuracy for it to be able to achieve its greatest potential in the medical field.
Inquire with our PCB straight away!
OEM & ODM Medical PCB Applications
Medical PCB Production Details As Following Up
|1||Layer Count||1-20 layers||22-40 layer|
|2||Base Material||KB、Shengyi、ShengyiSF305、FR408、FR408HR、IS410、FR406、GETEK、370HR、IT180A、Rogers4350、Rogers400、PTFE Laminates(Rogers series、Taconic series、Arlon series、Nelco series)、Rogers/Taconic/Arlon/Nelco laminate with FR-4 material(including partial Ro4350B hybrid laminating with FR-4)|
|3||PCB Type||Rigid PCB/FPC/Flex-Rigid||Backplane、HDI、High multi-layer blind&buried PCB、Embedded Capacitance、Embedded resistance board 、Heavy copper power PCB、Backdrill.|
|4||Lamination type||Blind&buried via type||Mechanical blind&burried vias with less than 3 times laminating||Mechanical blind&burried vias with less than 2 times laminating|
|HDI PCB||1+n+1,1+1+n+1+1,2+n+2,3+n+3(n buried vias≤0.3mm),Laser blind via can be filling plating||1+n+1,1+1+n+1+1,2+n+2,3+n+3(n buried vias≤0.3mm),Laser blind via can be filling plating|
|5||Finished Board Thickness||0.2-3.2mm||3.4-7mm|
|6||Minimum Core Thickness||0.15mm(6mil)||0.1mm(4mil)|
|7||Copper Thickness||Min. 1/2 OZ, Max. 4 OZ||Min. 1/3 OZ, Max. 10 OZ|
|9||Maximum Board Size||500*600mm(19”*23”)||1100*500mm(43”*19”)|
|10||Hole||Min laser drilling size||4mil||4mil|
|Max laser drilling size||6mil||6mil|
|Max aspect ratio for Hole plate||10:1（hole diameter＞8mil）||20:1|
|Max aspect ratio for laser via filling plating||0.9:1(Depth included copper thickness)||1:1(Depth included copper thickness)|
|Max aspect ratio for mechanical depth-
control drilling board(Blind hole drilling depth/blind hole size)
|0.8:1(drilling tool size≥10mil)||1.3:1(drilling tool size≤8mil),1.15:1(drilling tool size≥10mil)|
|Min. depth of Mechanical depth-control(back drill)||8mil||8mil|
|Min gap between hole wall and
conductor (None blind and buried via PCB)
|Min gap between hole wall conductor (Blind and buried via PCB)||8mil(1 times laminating),10mil(2 times laminating), 12mil(3 times laminating)||7mil(1 time laminating), 8mil(2 times laminating), 9mil(3 times laminating)|
|Min gab between hole wall conductor(Laser blind hole buried via PCB)||7mil（1+N+1）；8mil（1+1+N+1+1 or 2+N+2）||7mil（1+N+1）；8mil（1+1+N+1+1 or 2+N+2）|
|Min space between laser holes and conductor||6mil||5mil|
|Min space between hole walls in different net||10mil||10mil|
|Min space between hole walls in the same net||6mil(thru-hole& laser hole PCB),10mil(Mechanical blind&buried PCB)||6mil(thru-hole& laser hole PCB),10mil(Mechanical blind&buried PCB)|
|Min space bwteen NPTH hole walls||8mil||8mil|
|Hole location tolerance||±2mil||±2mil|
|Pressfit holes tolerance||±2mil||±2mil|
|Countersink depth tolerance||±6mil||±6mil|
|Countersink hole size tolerance||±6mil||±6mil|
|11||Pad(ring)||Min Pad size for laser drillings||10mil(for 4mil laser via),11mil(for 5mil laser via)||10mil(for 4mil laser via),11mil(for 5mil laser via)|
|Min Pad size for mechanical drillings||16mil(8mil drillings)||16mil(8mil drillings)|
|Min BGA pad size||HASL:10mil, LF HASL:12mil, other surface technics are 10mil(7mil is ok for flash gold)||HASL:10mil, LF HASL:12mil, other surface technics are 7mi|
|Pad size tolerance(BGA)||±1.5mil(pad size≤10mil);±15%(pad size>10mil)||±1.2mil(pad size≤12mil);±10%(pad size≥12mil)|
|1OZ: 3/4mil||1OZ: 3/4mil|
|2OZ: 4/5.5mil||2OZ: 4/5mil|
|3OZ: 5/8mil||3OZ: 5/8mil|
|4OZ: 6/11mil||4OZ: 6/11mil|
|5OZ: 7/14mil||5OZ: 7/13.5mil|
|6OZ: 8/16mil||6OZ: 8/15mil|
|7OZ: 9/19mil||7OZ: 9/18mil|
|8OZ: 10/22mil||8OZ: 10/21mil|
|9OZ: 11/25mil||9OZ: 11/24mil|
|10OZ: 12/28mil||10OZ: 12/27mil|
|1OZ: 4.8/5mil||1OZ: 4.5/5mil|
|1.43OZ（negative ）:5/8||1.43OZ（negative ）:5/7|
|2OZ: 6/8mil||2OZ: 6/7mil|
|3OZ: 6/12mil||3OZ: 6/10mil|
|4OZ: 7.5/15mil||4OZ: 7.5/13mil|
|5OZ: 9/18mil||5OZ: 9/16mil|
|6OZ: 10/21mil||6OZ: 10/19mil|
|7OZ: 11/25mil||7OZ: 11/22mil|
|8OZ: 12/29mil||8OZ: 12/26mil|
|9OZ: 13/33mil||9OZ: 13/30mil|
|10OZ: 14/38mil||10OZ: 14/35mil|
|13||Dimension Tolerance||Hole Position||0.08 ( 3 mils)|
|Conductor Width(W)||20% Deviation of Master
|1mil Deviation of Master
|Outline Dimension||0.15 mm ( 6 mils)||0.10 mm ( 4 mils)|
|Conductors & Outline
( C – O )
|0.15 mm ( 6 mils)||0.13 mm ( 5 mils)|
|Warp and Twist||0.75%||0.50%|
|14||Solder Mask||Max drilling tool size for via filled with Soldermask (single side)||35.4mil||35.4mil|
|Soldermask color||Green, Black, Blue, Red, White, Yellow,Purple matte/glossy|
|Silkscreen color||White, Black,Blue,Yellow|
|Max hole size for via filled with Blue glue aluminium||197mil||197mil|
|Finish hole size for via filled with resin||4-25.4mil||4-25.4mil|
|Max aspect ratio for via filled with resin board||8:1||12:1|
|Min width of soldermask bridge||Base copper≤0.5 oz、Immersion Tin： 7.5mil(Black), 5.5mil(Other color) , 8mil( on copper area)|
|Base copper≤0.5 oz、Finish treatment not Immersion Tin ： 5.5 mil(Black,extremity 5mil), 4mil(Other
color,extremity 3.5mil) , 8mil( on copper area
|Base coppe 1 oz: 4mil(Green), 5mil(Other color) , 5.5mil(Black,extremity 5mil),8mil( on copper area)|
|Base copper 1.43 oz: 4mil(Green), 5.5mil(Other color) , 6mil(Black), 8mil( on copper area)|
|Base copper 2 oz-4 oz: 6mil, 8mil( on copper area)|
|15||Surface Treatment||Lead free||Flash gold(electroplated gold)、ENIG、Hard gold、Flash gold、HASL Lead free、OSP、ENEPIG、Soft gold、Immersion silver、Immersion Tin、ENIG+OSP,ENIG+Gold finger,Flash gold(electroplated gold)+Gold finger,Immersion silver+Gold finger,Immersion Tin+Gold finge|
|Aspect ratio||10:1(HASL Lead free、HASL Lead、ENIG、Immersion Tin、Immersion silver、ENEPIG);8:1(OSP)|
|Max finished size||HASL Lead 22″*39″；HASL Lead free 22″*24″；Flash gold 24″*24″；Hard gold 24″*28″；ENIG 21″*27″；Flash gold(electroplated gold) 21″*48″；Immersion Tin 16″*21″；Immersion silver 16″*18″；OSP 24″*40″；|
|Min finished size||HASL Lead 5″*6″；HASL Lead free 10″*10″；Flash gold 12″*16″；Hard gold 3″*3″；Flash gold(electroplated gold) 8″*10″；Immersion Tin 2″*4″；Immersion silver 2″*4″；OSP 2″*2″；|
|PCB thickness||HASL Lead 0.6-4.0mm；HASL Lead free 0.6-4.0mm；Flash gold 1.0-3.2mm；Hard gold 0.1-5.0mm；ENIG 0.2-7.0mm；Flash gold(electroplated gold) 0.15-5.0mm；Immersion Tin 0.4-5.0mm；Immersion silver 0.4-5.0mm；OSP 0.2-6.0mm|
|Max high to gold finger||1.5inch|
|Min space between gold fingers||6mil|
|Min block space to gold fingers||7.5mil|
|16||V-Cutting||Panel Size||500mm X 622 mm ( max. )||500mm X 800 mm ( max. )|
|Board Thickness||0.50 mm (20mil) min.||0.30 mm (12mil) min.|
|Remain Thickness||1/3 board thickness||0.40 +/-0.10mm( 16+/-4 mil )|
|Tolerance||±0.13 mm(5mil)||±0.1 mm(4mil)|
|Groove Width||0.50 mm (20mil) max.||0.38 mm (15mil) max.|
|Groove to Groove||20 mm (787mil) min.||10 mm (394mil) min.|
|Groove to Trace||0.45 mm(18mil) min.||0.38 mm(15mil) min.|
|17||Slot||Slot size tol.L≥2W||PTH Slot: L：+/-0.13(5mil) W：+/-0.08(3mil)||PTH Slot: L：+/-0.10(4mil) W：+/-0.05(2mil)|
|NPTH slot(mm) L+/-0.10 (4mil) W：+/-0.05(2mil)||NPTH slot(mm) L：+/-0.08 (3mil) W：+/-0.05(2mil)|
|18||Min Spacing from hole edge to hole edge||0.30-1.60 (Hole Diameter)||0.15mm(6mil)||0.10mm(4mil)|
|1.61-6.50 (Hole Diameter)||0.15mm(6mil)||0.13mm(5mil)|
|19||Min spacing between hole edge to circuitry pattern||PTH hole: 0.20mm(8mil)||PTH hole: 0.13mm(5mil)|
|NPTH hole: 0.18mm(7mil)||NPTH hole: 0.10mm(4mil)|
|20||Image transfer Registration tol||Circuit pattern vs.index hole||0.10(4mil)||0.08(3mil)|
|Circuit pattern vs.2nd drill hole||0.15(6mil)||0.10(4mil)|
|21||Registration tolerance of front/back image||0.075mm(3mil)||0.05mm(2mil)|
|22||Multilayers||Layer-layer misregistration||4layers:||0.15mm(6mil)max.||4layers:||0.10mm(4mil) max.|
|Min. Spacing from Hole Edge to Innerlayer Pattern||0.225mm(9mil)||0.15mm(6mil)|
|Min.Spacing from Outline to Innerlayer Pattern||0.38mm(15mil)||0.225mm(9mil)|
|Min. board thickness||4layers:0.30mm(12mil)||4layers:0.20mm(8mil)|
|Board thickness tolerance||4layers:+/-0.13mm(5mil)||4layers:+/-0.10mm(4mil)|
|8-12 layers:+/-0.20mm (8mil)||8-12 layers:+/-0.15mm (6mil)|
|26||Impedance control||±5ohm(＜50ohm), ±10%(≥50ohm)|
PCBTok offers flexible shipping methods for our customers, you may choose from one of the methods below.
DHL offers international express services in over 220 countries.
DHL partners with PCBTok and offers very competitive rates to customers of PCBTok.
It normally takes 3-7 business days for the package to be delivered around the world.
UPS gets the facts and figures about the world’s largest package delivery company and one of the leading global providers of specialized transportation and logistics services.
It normally takes 3-7 business days to deliver a package to most of the addresses in the world.
TNT has 56,000 employees in 61 countries.
It takes 4-9 business days to deliver the packages to the hands
of our customers.
FedEx offers delivery solutions for customers around the world.
It takes 4-7 business days to deliver the packages to the hands
of our customers.
5. Air, Sea/Air, and Sea
If your order is of large volume with PCBTok, you can also choose
to ship via air, sea/air combined, and sea when necessary.
Please contact your sales representative for shipping solutions.
Note: if you need others, please contact your sales representative for shipping solutions.
You can use the following payment methods:
Telegraphic Transfer(TT): A telegraphic transfer (TT) is an electronic method of transferring funds utilized primarily for overseas wire transactions. It’s very convenient to transfer.
Bank/Wire transfer: To pay by wire transfer using your bank account, you need to visit your nearest bank branch with the wire transfer information. Your payment will be completed 3-5 business days after you have finished the money transfer.
Paypal: Pay easily, fast and secure with PayPal. many other credit and debit cards via PayPal.
Credit Card: You can pay with a credit card: Visa, Visa Electron, MasterCard, Maestro.
“I have been in the Electronics industry for quite a while already, and part of my wor is to search for best possible circuit board that will align with my boss’ needs. After I’ve discovered PCBTok, I wasn’t aware that every time my boss asks me to purchase certain PCBs, I always run into PCBTok. They never disappointed me, not even my boss with their quality products and extraordinary service to their customers. A much recommended manufacturer in China!”Benjamin Harrison, Reliability Engineer from Quebec, Canada
“Purchasing from PCBTok has always been the greatest decision I’ve ever made in my entire life. They never hesitate to help me regarding my questions concerning the suitable circuit boards for my certain operations. They always provide me with series of suggestions that are perfectly suited for what I am looking for, plus the fact that their products is at the top-quality. It’s been a pleasure of mine coordinating with PCBTok. They are composed of talented and great people that will genuinely help you with your concerns with regards to circuit boards.”Emily Smith, Computer Systems Analyst from Florida, USA
“It’s been already a month and a half since I started purchasing PCBs from PCBTok, so far, they’ve never disappointed me with the items that came to my house. Also, their service towards me has never changed, I am always treated with respect, and I am always valued when I am communicating with them. They’re so easy to communicate with since they always acknowledge my concerns and queries concerning my projected item. Bonus, they work so fast and accurately!”Harry Rodriguez, Computer Hardware Engineer from Georgia, USA
Medical PCB – The Completed FAQ Guide
If you’re working on a medical PCB, you may have questions about the standards and regulations that govern it. Here you will find answers to some of the most frequently asked questions by medical PCB designers. Continue reading to find out more. This article will also provide you with some pointers on how to get started.
This article should assist you with your next medical PCB project. Please do not hesitate to ask any questions.
A medical PCB is a printed circuit board that is used specifically in the production of medical devices. These boards must meet the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Institute for Printed Circuits, and US Food and Drug Administration standards. For these reasons, it is critical to find a manufacturer capable of producing high-quality medical PCBs that meet all of these specifications.
While it is possible to locate a manufacturer of medical PCBs anywhere, not all of them are produced in the same manner. When selecting a manufacturer, there are several factors to consider. A medical PCB is typically built with a high density of interconnects. As a result, it is more energy-efficient and can help preserve battery life. As they must work with delicate medical devices, medical PCBs must also meet stringent signal integrity standards.
While most medical PCB manufacturers adhere to these standards, the CDRH of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) establishes specific requirements for the manufacture of these devices. These requirements are outlined in 21CFR820 and are adhered to by OEMs.
Furthermore, ISO has established a quality management standard for medical PCB assemblies. The ISO 13485 standard expands on the ISO 9001 quality management system’s fundamentals and specifies detailed requirements for development, design, documentation, and traceability.
Medical Rigid-Flex PCB
A defibrillator is one example of a PCB used in medical devices. A printed circuit board is used by the defibrillator to deliver an electrical shock through electrodes attached to the skin. A defibrillator’s goal is to restore the heart’s rhythm to normal sinus rhythm. A defibrillator is a component of many other medical devices, including a cardiac monitor.
A medical device must meet specific criteria and adhere to a strict quality system in order to be considered medical grade. These requirements may include stringent PCB design and function requirements, as well as a specific quality system. Table 1 summarizes medical device standards. These elements can influence the overall design of your PCB. When selecting a board builder, keep the following factors in mind.
When it comes to designing medical PCBs, copper is a godsend. Depending on the type of sub-circuit, you may need to create a ground plane on each layer. Vias should be used to connect this ground plane. If you’re working with digital sub-circuits, you should split or dichotomize them as well. These features will help to reduce noise and crosstalk in your design.
Aside from safety, the working environment for medical equipment PCBs is an important consideration. The output of your medical equipment is affected by temperature, humidity, air quality, and pressure. A clean working environment eliminates problems caused by board contamination or corrosion and reduces the need for maintenance.
Medical equipment manufacturers, on the other hand, require special safety standards and strict protocols. You’ll need a service provider with a proven track record and contracts to ensure that your medical equipment is designed to withstand these high standards.
Medical PCBs have transformed the medical industry. Previously, medical officers had to manually keep track of records. This slowed down the entire process and resulted in many deaths. They can now keep track of vital medical data with the click of a button. More lives have been saved as medical technology has advanced. Choose a PCB manufacturer with a track record of success.
There are several types of medical PCBs used in the manufacture of medical devices. Although single-layer PCBs are inexpensive, they are not suitable for complex medical devices such as pacemakers. Medical PCBs, on the other hand, are much more expensive and require two layers. Each layer contains copper on both sides as well as holes on both sides. Single-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs) are commonly used in simple devices such as power sensors.
A High-Density Interconnect (HDI) PCB is the first type of medical printed circuit board. This type of board ensures fast data transmission. While HDI is costly, it is required for some medical devices. The high-density interconnect PCB is resistant to electromagnetic interference and noise, enabling true floating-point input. A medical PCB must be designed to be simple to use and maintain.
The rigid-flex PCB is another type of medical circuit board. This type of PCB has a high component density and is intended to fit into small spaces. Rigid-flex PCBs are small and easy to manage, design, and test. These PCBs are extremely tough and can withstand a variety of harsh environments. They are also chemical, solvent, and gas resistant.
Various medical PCBs are used in various medical devices. They are used in a variety of applications ranging from simple pulse-rate monitors to complex surgical procedures. These boards ensure the safety and accuracy of medical procedures. Heart monitors, blood glucose monitors, blood pressure monitors, X-ray computed tomography, and heart pacemakers are examples of medical devices. These are just a few examples of medical PCBs, but there are many more.
There are also a variety of materials used in the production of medical PCBs. FR-4 is the most commonly used laminate for medical devices. Although this type of material is relatively inexpensive, more sophisticated equipment may necessitate the use of a different type of laminate. Polyamide, Teflon, and ceramic-type materials are examples of laminates. All of these materials are especially well-suited for high-frequency applications, such as cardiac pacemakers.
One of the most significant advantages of a Medical PCB is its ability to make record keeping much easier. Previously, medical officers had to manually record each patient’s vital information.
Many people died as a result of the slow process of keeping records. Important medical data can be stored electronically and accessed with the click of a button using medical PCBs. This has not only increased the speed of medical service but has also saved many lives.
Medical devices, for example, used to be large and heavy. This problem can be solved by using flexible circuits instead of large surface-mounted electrical components. They are made of flexible or rigid-flex materials and do not require soldering or connections.
Furthermore, they are more heat resistant than standard printed circuit boards. The FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health regulates medical devices, which requires manufacturers to register their products and register with the agency.
Because medical equipment is so complex, PCBs for such applications are typically made in non-standard shapes and sizes. A good PCB provider, on the other hand, can create flexible PCBs to meet the specific needs of a medical device. Medical PCBs are also used in life-saving medical equipment and are frequently exposed to temperature extremes, shocks, and liquid. As a result, they must be designed to withstand these conditions and remain operational for as long as possible.
Medical PCB Assembly
PCBTok is the right choice if you’re looking for a medical PCB manufacturer. We provide a wide range of medical PCBs and are prepared to meet any challenge. Our experienced team will collaborate with you to design a custom medical PCB that meets your specific needs. This article will explain the PCB design and manufacturing process. We’ll also discuss the finished product’s quality.
Quality assurance. As a medical device manufacturer, we strictly adhere to quality-control guidelines. That is, we adhere to strict ISO 13485 standards and regulations. Our medical electronics staff is highly skilled and has years of experience.
Our team of qualified experts is always ready to assist you with the design and manufacture of your medical device, as well as with regulatory compliance. Our quality-control measures go above and beyond compliance, and our services are well-regarded in the industry.
Standards for Medical Devices
Medical PCBs must be carefully designed to account for obsolescence. If a component is unavailable for several months, a project may be terminated prematurely. Furthermore, significant changes at the component or schematic level will necessitate a new approval process that could take months. As a result, a PCB must be designed to be simple to assemble and maintain. The component placement, PCB layout, and trace routing all reflect this.